Firstly, dhyana is a Sanskrit word that translates into “meditation”. In yoga meditation is defined as Dharana (concentration) focused on God. Once you can fully control your prana to draw it inward and concentrate that prana on God, Dhyana is the result. Since the study of Dhyana is beyond this article’s scope learn more here.
Dharana refers to focus or concentration of the mind. The Sanskrit language birthed the term and Patanjali laid it out in his 8 limbs of yoga. The power of concentration can be strengthened by the practice of various scientific techniques offered in the corpus of yoga knowledge. Watch the video below and learn more here.
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Dharana – Video
The word Pratyahara comes from the Sanskrit language. Pratyahara fairly translates to “withdrawal of the senses“. When a yogi works towards deeper meditation the outward flow of prana is reveresed. The prana that usually engaged in the 5 senses of taste, smell, sight, sound and touch is drawn inward towards the “6th sense”. Since the prana is now free from distraction of it can be used to deepen explicit meditation.
Pratyahara – Video
Learn a bit about Pranayama in the video below. The great sage Patanjali notes pranyama in the 8 limbs of yoga. Firstly, “prana” comes from the ancient Sanskrit language and translates to “life force energy”. Pranayama refers to the practice of manipulating prana by scientific techniques. This is a deep and broad topic, therefore I encourage you to study the topic further.